Prevalence and risk factors of depression symptoms among rural and urban populations affected by Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a representative cross-sectional study


Cénat JM, Noorishad P, Dalexis RD, Rousseau, C. et al. (2022)

BMJ Open


High mortality rates, anxiety and distress associated with Ebola virus disease (EVD) are risk factors for mood disorders in affected communities. This study aims to document the prevalence and risk factors associated with depressive symptoms among a representative sample of individuals affected by EVD.


Cross-sectional study.


The current study was conducted 7 months (March 11, 2019 to April 23, 2019) after the end of the ninth outbreak of EVD in the province of Equateur in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).


A large population-based sample of 1614 adults (50% women, Mage=34.05; SD=12.55) in health zones affected by the ninth outbreak in DRC.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Participants completed questionnaires assessing EVD exposure level, stigmatisation related to EVD and depressive symptoms. The ORs associated with sociodemographic data, EVD exposure level and stigmatisation were analysed through logistic regressions.


Overall, 62.03% (95% CI 59.66% to 64.40%) of individuals living in areas affected by EVD were categorised as having severe depressive symptoms. The multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that adults in the two higher score categories of exposure to EVD were at two times higher risk of developing severe depressive symptoms (respectively, OR 1.94 (95% CI 1.22 to 3.09); OR 2.34 (95% CI 1.26 to 4.34)). Individuals in the two higher categories of stigmatisation were two to four times more at risk (respectively, OR 2.42 (95% CI 1.53 to 3.83); OR 4.73 (95% CI 2.34 to 9.56)). Living in rural areas (OR 0.19 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.38)) and being unemployed (OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.93)) increased the likelihood of having severe depressive symptoms.


Results indicate that depressive symptoms in EVD affected populations is a major public health problem that must be addressed through culturally adapted mental health programs.